Today, the kinetic energy of flowing rivers is captured in a much different way and converted into hydroelectricity. Probably the most familiar type of hydroelectric power is generated by a system where dams are constructed to store water in a reservoir which, when released, flows through turbines to produce electricity. Hydropower plants can range in size from massive projects such as Hoover Dam to micro-hydroelectric power systems. Direct use of hydroelectric power is naturally dependent on geographic location.
Assuming a dependable waterway source is accessible and available, micro-hydroelectric plants can be constructed to supply electricity to farm and ranch operations or small municipalities. Small towns can harness the energy of local waterways by building moderately sized hydroelectric power systems.
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Learn more about hydroelectric energy at the U. Geological Survey website. Ocean thermal energy can be converted into electricity using a few different systems that rely on warm surface water temperatures. There are also lesser developed technologies that leverage ocean currents, ocean winds and salinity gradients as sources of power conversion. Cold ocean water from deep below the surface can be used to cool buildings with desalinated water often produced as a by-product , and seaside communities can employ the methods to tap natural ocean energy described above to supplement municipal power and energy needs.
Ocean energy is an evolving source of alternative energy production, and with more than 70 percent of the surface of our planet covered by ocean, its future looks promising, depending on geographies and regulatory guidelines. These two types of renewable energy have to be produced using mechanical means, rather than by harnessing a natural process. Bioenergy is a type of renewable energy derived from biomass to create heat and electricity or to produce liquid fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel used for transportation. Biomass refers to any organic matter coming from recently living plants or animals.
Even though bioenergy generates about the same amount of carbon dioxide as fossil fuels, the replacement plants grown as biomass remove an equal amount of CO2 from the atmosphere, keeping the environmental impact relatively neutral. There are a variety of systems used to generate this type of electricity, ranging from directly burning biomass to capturing and using methane gas produced by the natural decomposition of organic material. How is bioenergy used? Businesses or organizations that transport goods or people can convert their fleets to vehicles that use biofuels such as ethanol or biodiesel.
Manufacturing facilities can be equipped to burn biomass directly to produce steam captured by a turbine to generate electricity. In some cases, this process can have a dual purpose by powering the facility as well as heating it.
For example, paper mills can use wood waste to produce electricity and steam for heating. Farm operations can convert waste from livestock into electricity using small, modular systems. Towns can tap the methane gas created by the anaerobic digestion of organic waste in landfills and use it as fuel for generating electricity. Learn more about bioenergy here.
Hydrogen is the simplest comprised of one proton and one electron and most abundant element in the universe, yet it does not occur naturally as a gas on earth. Instead, it is found in organic compounds hydrocarbons such as gasoline, natural gas, methanol and propane and water H2O. Hydrogen can also be produced under certain conditions by some algae and bacteria using sunlight as an energy source.
Hydrogen is high in energy yet produces little or no pollution when burned. Liquid hydrogen has been used to launch space shuttles and other rockets into orbit since the s. Hydrogen fuel cells convert the potential chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity , with pure water and heat as the only byproducts. However, commercialization of these fuel cells as a practical source of green energy will likely be limited until costs come down and durability improves.
Almost all the hydrogen used in the United States is used in industry to refine petroleum, treat metals, produce fertilizer and process foods. In addition, hydrogen fuel cells are used as an energy source where hydrogen and oxygen atoms are combined to generate electricity. There are also currently a few hundred hydrogen-powered vehicles operating in the United States, a number that could increase as the cost of fuel cell production drops and the number of refueling stations increases. Other practical applications for this type of renewable energy include large fuel cells providing emergency electricity for buildings and remote locations, electric motor vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells and marine vessels powered by hydrogen fuel cells.
Learn more about hydrogen power on the Energy Information Agency website. Homeowners Track your energy and count your savings Login. In our study, the positively related t-value testifies to a positive level of significance, implying that social barriers are still a hindrance to the deployment of renewable energy.
The key trends that will shape renewable energy in 2018 and beyond
Hypothesis H2 highlights the impact of social barriers on economic barriers. This indicates that the parameters, such as opportunity cost and opposition by residents, strongly influence economic parameters. Earlier studies Jianjun and Chen, have supported that social barriers impact economic parameters. However, the earlier studies did not conduct research to understand the strength of the impact. Through our survey, we have determined that social barriers do have a strong correlation with the economic barriers associated with the implementation of renewable energy.
Hypothesis H3 tested the influence of economic barriers on the deployment of renewable energy. This indicates that the parameters of economic barriers do not influence the deployment of renewable energy directly. However, this research contradicts the earlier findings. Hypothesis H4 tested the effect of technological barriers on the deployment of renewable energy. This indicates that technological barriers are moderately significant in the deployment of renewable energy.
Earlier research Gullberg et al. This research paper corroborates the findings of previous studies. Hypothesis H5 examined the impact of technological barriers on economic barriers. This indicates that the technological barriers have a highly significant impact on economic barriers. This study validates the findings of earlier studies.
Hypothesis H6 examined the effects of regulatory barriers on the deployment of renewable energy. This indicates that regulatory barriers have a significant impact on the implementation of renewable energy. Earlier studies Jing, discuss how government policies and administration affect the usage of renewable energy. However, the earlier studies were specific to a country. This study fills the gap by conducting research globally and taking all major countries into consideration.
Hypothesis H7 argued for the effects of regulatory barriers on economic barrier parameters. This indicates that regulatory barriers have a highly significant impact on economic barriers regarding the deployment of renewable energy. Conversely, the earlier literature Harrison, discusses how regulatory and government policies affect the implementation of renewable energy.
This research fills the gap by establishing a strong association between regulatory and economic barriers. Research was conducted to understand the barriers associated with the deployment of renewable energy and the benefits of overcoming these barriers. This research answers all the questions identified as part of the research objective.
Firstly, the factors affecting the deployment of renewable energy were identified and grouped into social, economic, technological and regulatory barriers. This research shows that social, technological and regulatory barriers have a strong influence on the deployment of renewable energy, while economic barriers, though not directly influencing it, and significantly influence it indirectly. Secondly, in the structural equation model above, the path coefficient of user-friendly procedures is 0. Since the path coefficient for the entire four constructs is equal or greater than 0.
Finally, the research confirms that political implications have a big impact on the deployment of renewable energy. Technological barriers are preventing renewable energy from being efficient and preventing it from being cost effective. Social awareness and opposition also have a positive impact on the deployment of energy. These results are in line with the theory of diffusion and answer the third question of the research objective.
In our research, we have studied the impact of various barriers on the deployment of renewable energy. Breaking red tape in government procedures will lead to generating interest among investors in renewable energy projects and, by breaking the barriers to the deployment of renewable energy, a greater number of projects will start up.
This will help to achieve economies of scale and will bring down operation and maintenance costs. By supporting further innovative technological advancements, more efficient plants will be developed which may require smaller portions of land. Though renewable energy would prevent degradation of the environment, however, a small fraction of the ecosystem will still be affected: for example, in the case of offshore wind farms, underwater marine life might be disturbed.
In this research, we have considered the presence of four barriers as factors preventing the successful deployment of renewable energy globally; however, it is reasonable to expect that not all the barriers will be present in each country and there could be some new barriers that have not yet been conceptualized.
Though this research has been conducted to understand the global perception, the data collected constituted only 9. The research conducted was mainly based on data collected from the Asia Pacific region. Cultural characteristics of Asians can be considered to be different from those of other countries; hence it is advised to practise caution when generalizing the findings in the context of renewable energy.
Finally, regarding future research, further study is required to understand and compare the impact of barriers to renewable energy in developing and developed countries. In the long run, due to increasing awareness of environmental damage, conventional power generation based on exhaustible fuels oil, coal and gas is generally considered unsustainable. Alternative energies that have minimal impact on the environment and are inexhaustible, such as renewable energy, can be a solution to the long-fought sustainability problem. However, despite on-going awareness of the manifold advantages of renewable energy, the diffusion of renewable energy is limited globally.
This restriction has been attributed to social, economic, technological and regulatory barriers. This research presents the impact of social, economic, technological and regulatory barriers on the deployment of renewable energy and how these barriers are interrelated. Focusing on factors influencing barriers and the deployment of renewable energy, a research model was developed and tested by analysing the data collected from respondents. Respondents were experienced professionals from the energy industry. The findings show that social barriers have a positive impact while technological and regulatory barriers have a very significant impact on the deployment of renewable energy.
However, this research shows that economic barriers do not directly impact the deployment of renewable energy, but are interrelated with social, technological and regulatory barriers, thus indirectly affecting the deployment of renewable energy. The simultaneous increase in energy demand and the negative impact of fossil fuels on the environment underscores the need for energy production from renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources strike a perfect balance between economic, technical and environmental considerations, and contribute to a more sustainable development that will favour future generations.
Krishna Moorthy: Performed the experiments, Analyzed and interpreted the data, Wrote the paper. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The following is the supplementary data related to this article:. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Heliyon v. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Krishna Moorthy: ym. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Questionnaire. Abstract Several economic, institutional, technical and socio-cultural barriers hinder countries from moving from the high to the low emission pathway. Introduction The world's population is growing at an unprecedented rate and that has necessitated a dramatic increase in energy demand globally. Background Despite remarkable promotion and commitment from various nations, only a small percentage of energy is generated from renewable energy, especially in developing countries.
This research tries to resolve the following questions to reach a solution which is in line with the objective of this research: a. Hypotheses This literature review looks at the outcomes of penetration and deployment of renewable energy, which are affected by four major factors: social barriers, economic barriers, technological barriers and regulatory barriers. Social barriers The transition from conventional resources to renewable energy has encountered public resistance and opposition. H1 Social barriers have a significant influence on the deployment of renewable energy. H2 Social barriers have a significant influence on economic barriers.
H3 Economic barriers have a significant influence on the deployment of renewable energy. H4 Technological barriers have a significant influence on the deployment of renewable energy. H5 Technological barriers have a significant influence on economic barriers. Regulatory barriers Factors like lack of national policies, bureaucratic and administrative hurdles, inadequate incentives, impractical government targets, and lack of standards and certifications have prevented renewable energy from expanding dramatically Stokes, H6 Regulatory barriers have a significant influence on the deployment of renewable energy.
H7 Regulatory barriers have a significant influence on economic barriers. Methodology The research framework of this study is given in Fig. Open in a separate window. Data collection The survey questionnaire please see the questionnaire was framed based on independent variables and their sub-variables. Profile of respondents The survey respondents were professionals in the energy industry manufacturing of rigs, power generation, power distribution, oil and gas, mining and renewable energy.
Reliability Cronbach's alpha value was considered to determine the reliability of the model fit. Table 3 Discriminant validity: Fornell-Larcker criteria. Construct Breaking barriers Social barriers Economic barriers Technological barriers Regulatory barriers Breaking barriers 0. Convergent validity Convergent validity can be defined as the degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related are in fact related Campbell and Fiske, Table 2 Overall Reliability of the construct and Convergent validity.
Discriminant validity Discriminant validity is used to test if the models or concepts that are not in relation are unrelated. The outcomes of the hypothesis testing is given in Table 4 below: Table 4 Outcomes of the hypothesis testing. Results In total, seven hypotheses were identified. Implications for renewable energy industry In our research, we have studied the impact of various barriers on the deployment of renewable energy.
Limitations and future research In this research, we have considered the presence of four barriers as factors preventing the successful deployment of renewable energy globally; however, it is reasonable to expect that not all the barriers will be present in each country and there could be some new barriers that have not yet been conceptualized. Conclusion In the long run, due to increasing awareness of environmental damage, conventional power generation based on exhaustible fuels oil, coal and gas is generally considered unsustainable. Declarations Author contribution statement Seetharaman Conceived and designed the experiments.
Nitin Patwa: Performed the experiments. Saravanan: Analyzed and interpreted the data. Yash Gupta: Contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data. Funding statement This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Competing interest statement The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Additional information No additional information is available for this paper. Appendix A. Supplementary data The following is the supplementary data related to this article: Questionnaire: Click here to view. References Ahlborg H. Drivers and barriers to rural electrification in Tanzania and Mozambique: Grid-extension, off-grid and renewable energy technologies. Analysis of barriers to implement solar power installations in India using interpretive structural modeling technique. Energy Rev.
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